Marine Fisheries
The activities in the marine sector range from artisana canoe operations through inshore to industrial operations. Both pelagic and demersal fishery resources are exploited.
Marine fisheries in Ghana are affected by a seasonal upwelling that occurs in Ghanaian coastal waters. During upwelling periods (December/January – February and July – September) biological activity increases in the sea that result in increased production of fish food and abundance of most marine fishers. These are the fishing seasons in Ghanaian waters as the fish becomes more available for exploitation by the fishers during the upwelling seasons.
Artisanal Fisheries
Nearly 10,000 canoes and 123,000 fishers (with nearly 1.5 million dependants) operate from 304 landing centres in 189 fishing villages located along the coast.

Canoe fishers use a wide variety of fishing gears, including gilling and entangling nets, seine nets (purse and beach seines), castnets and handlines, to exploit both pelagic and demersal fish species. The fleet is responsible for over 80% of the total annual catch of small pelagic species (sardinellas, mackerels and anchovies).

Inshore Fisheries
The inshore fleet is made up of about 230 vessels, ranging in size between 8 and 37m long, that operate both as trawlers and purse seiners. They operate from 7centers only where there are facilities for landing. The fleet exploits both the small pelagic and demersal fish species.
Industrial Fisheries
The industrial fleet is currently made up of 40 trawlers, 7 pair trawlers 6 shrimpers, 23 tuna baitboats and 10 tuna purse seiners. The vessels operate from Tema and Takoradi where there are deepwater ports.
The trawlers and shrimpers exploit demersal and semipelagic species. The tuna fishing vessels catch mainly yellow fin, skipjack and big eye tunas. Most tune vessels are operated on joint-venture basis with Ghanaian having at east 50% shares as required in the Fisheries Act 625 of 2002
Lagoon Fisheries
There are more than 50 coastal lagoons of various sizes in Ghana. These lagoons provide an important source of protein and other resources for the communities that live around them. The lagoons also contribute significantly to the diversity and status of fish stocks in coastal waters as many fish species spend part of their life cycle in these lagoons.

With time, the ecosystem of many of the lagoons has changed as a result of pollution form industries, domestic waste, urbanization and demand for land for other purposes. The mangrove forests that fringed many of the lagoons have been lost and the fisheries in the lagoons are ether overexploited or threatened.
Some of the lagoons have been designated as RAMSAR sites.

Inland Fisheries
The Lake Volta, reservoirs associated with irrigation and potable water projects, and fishponds are the main sources of freshwater fish in Ghana. Fishing in Lake Volta (with a surface area of 8,480 km² and 5,200 km of shoreline) contributes about 90% of the total inland fishery production in Ghana, which is around 90,000 MT.

About 80,000 fishers and 20,000 fish processors and traders are engaged in the Lake Volta fishery. There are 17,500 canoes actively fishing in the Lake Volta. The fishing gears used is cast and gill nets, hook-and line, and traps. Then species exploited are mainly Cichlids (38.1%), Chrysichthys spp. (34.4%) and synodontis spp (11.4%).

To check illegal fishing activities on the Lake Volta, Government recently acquired a modern patrol vessel to boost the control efforts undertaken by the Monitoring, Control and Surveillance Division of the Directorate of Fisheries.

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